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Our COVID-19 Plan Would Minimize Mortality and Lockdown-Induced Collateral DamageJayanta Bhattacharya, Sunetra Gupta, Martin KulldorffAmerican Institute of Economic Research2020-10-232020-10-23https://www.aier.org/article/our-covid-19-plan-would-minimize-mortality-and-lockdown-induced-collateral-damage/https://rconstitution.us/our-covid-19-plan-would-minimize-mortality-and-lockdown-induced-collateral-damage/0.1Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Informed ConsentJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2020-10-012020-10-16https://rconstitution.us/informed-consent/https://rconstitution.us/informed-consent/#comments0.1Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
Appointment making (II.2.2)
Appointment advice, consent (II.2.2)
On the Reading of Old ConstitutionsJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2020-10-092020-10-09https://rconstitution.us/on-the-reading-of-old-constitutions/https://rconstitution.us/on-the-reading-of-old-constitutions/#comments0.2Offsetting powers
Loss limiting by oath to support Constitution
Republican Party Blocks Constitutionalist Majorities and LibertyJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2020-10-022020-10-02https://rconstitution.us/republican-party-blocks-constitutionalist-majorities-and-liberty/https://rconstitution.us/republican-party-blocks-constitutionalist-majorities-and-liberty/#comments0.1Voting scores (48)
Government Agencies Are Holding Back ‘Fast Tests’ that Could Be Saving LivesJames AnthonyFoundation for Economic Education2020-09-192020-09-25https://fee.org/articles/government-agencies-are-holding-back-fast-tests-that-could-be-saving-lives/https://rconstitution.us/government-agencies-are-holding-back-fast-tests-that-could-be-saving-lives/0.1Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Your Future Earnings Are Quickly Becoming Other People’s MoneyJames AnthonyThe Federalist2020-09-082020-09-18https://thefederalist.com/2020/09/08/your-future-earnings-are-quickly-becoming-other-peoples-money/https://rconstitution.us/your-future-earnings-are-quickly-becoming-other-peoples-money/0.1Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
You Built That: Real Net Voluntary Value Added per CapitaJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2020-09-112020-09-11https://rconstitution.us/you-built-that-real-net-voluntary-value-added-per-capita/https://rconstitution.us/you-built-that-real-net-voluntary-value-added-per-capita/#comments0.3Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
Income-tax laws (16)
Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
City Problems Need City Solutions: Open Up Counties AgainJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2020-04-172020-09-04https://rconstitution.us/city-problems-need-city-solutions-open-up-counties-again/https://rconstitution.us/city-problems-need-city-solutions-open-up-counties-again/#comments0.1Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Mass Murder Can Be Reduced: Disincentivize, Detect, Deescalate, LimitJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2019-08-272020-08-28https://rconstitution.us/mass-murder-can-be-reduced-disincentivize-detect-deescalate-limit/https://rconstitution.us/mass-murder-can-be-reduced-disincentivize-detect-deescalate-limit/#comments0.1Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Congresspeople create and redesign inferior national courts (I.8.9)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Assessing the FDA via the Anomaly of Off-Label Drug PrescribingAlexander TabarrokThe Independent Review2000-06-012020-08-21https://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_05_1_tabarrok.pdf#page=2https://rconstitution.us/assessing-the-fda-via-the-anomaly-of-off-label-drug-prescribing/1.2Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Republicans: The Key ProgressivesJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2018-12-082020-08-21https://rconstitution.us/republicans-the-key-progressives/https://rconstitution.us/republicans-the-key-progressives/#comments0.2Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President objects to bills (I.7.2)
President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
Voting scores (48)
Living through Coronavirus, Living with CoronavirusJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2020-08-112020-08-11https://rconstitution.us/living-through-coronavirus-living-with-coronavirus/https://rconstitution.us/living-through-coronavirus-living-with-coronavirus/#comments0.2Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Test Sensitivity Is Secondary to Frequency and Turnaround Time for COIVID-19 SurveillanceDaniel Larremorey, Bryan Wilder, Evan Lester, Soraya Shehata, James Burke, James Hay, Milind Tambe, Michael Mina, Roy ParkermedRxiv2020-06-272020-08-09https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.06.22.20136309v2.full.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/test-sensitivity-is-secondary-to-frequency-and-turnaround-time-for-coivid-19-surveillance/0.8Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
YouTube Plays Doctor: No More Second OpinionsJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2020-08-072020-08-07https://rconstitution.us/youtube-plays-doctor-no-more-second-opinions/https://rconstitution.us/youtube-plays-doctor-no-more-second-opinions/#comments0.2Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Hydroxychloroquine, Used Early, Is the Most-Effective COVID-19 Treatment, and Is Likely Much Better Given Supplemental ZincJames AnthonyrConstitution.us2020-07-302020-07-30https://rconstitution.us/hydroxychloroquine-used-early-is-the-most-effective-covid-19-treatment-and-is-likely-much-better-given-supplemental-zinc/https://rconstitution.us/hydroxychloroquine-used-early-is-the-most-effective-covid-19-treatment-and-is-likely-much-better-given-supplemental-zinc/#comments0.1Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
We May Already Have Herd Immunity – An Interview with Professor Sunetra GuptaSunetra GuptaReaction.life2020-07-212020-07-30https://reaction.life/we-may-already-have-herd-immunity-an-interview-with-professor-sunetra-gupta/https://rconstitution.us/we-may-already-have-herd-immunity-an-interview-with-professor-sunetra-gupta/0.4Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
George Washington’s Error and the Corruption of BankingJames AnthonyAmerican Thinker2019-05-222019-05-22https://www.americanthinker.com/articles/2019/05/george_washingtons_error_and_the_corruption_of_banking.htmlhttps://rconstitution.us/george-washingtons-error-and-the-corruption-of-banking/0.1President objects to bills (I.7.2)
Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)
The Income Tax: Lessons from the Sixteenth AmendmentMark BrandlyMises Wire2019-04-152019-04-15https://mises.org/wire/income-tax-lessons-sixteenth-amendmenthttps://rconstitution.us/the-income-tax-lessons-from-the-sixteenth-amendment/0.2Income-tax laws (16)
The Scope of the President’s Pardon PowerJames PfiffnerSSRN2019-03-312019-03-31https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=3740960130010961221171160840791210691010730100280610251000830220290130930850300090000320300330081111110070251270030911220091120440570370060470810060210950730150760000110490301211070940930850841190700040711241121https://rconstitution.us/the-scope-of-the-presidents-pardon-power/0.4Reprieve, pardon except on impeachment (II.2.1)
Caucuses RuleJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/caucuses-rulehttps://rconstitution.us/caucuses-rule#comments0.0Caucuses (52)
Caucuses RulesJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/caucuses-rules/https://rconstitution.us/caucuses-rules/0.0Caucuses (52)
Closed-Voting RuleJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/closed-voting-rule/https://rconstitution.us/closed-voting-rule/#comments0.0Closed voting (52)
Debate RulesJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/debate-rules/https://rconstitution.us/debate-rules/#comments0.0Debates (49)
Donations PowerJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/donations-power/https://rconstitution.us/donations-power/#comments0.0Donations (43)
Electoral-College RulesJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/electoral-college-rules/https://rconstitution.us/electoral-college-rules/#comments0.0Electoral college (52)
Meetings PowerJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/meetings-power/https://rconstitution.us/meetings-power/#comments0.0Meetings (43)
One-State-at-a-Time RulesJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/one-state-at-a-time-rules/https://rconstitution.us/one-state-at-a-time-rules/#comments0.0One state at a time (53)
Proportional-Voting RuleJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/proportional-voting-rulehttps://rconstitution.us/proportional-voting-rule#comments0.0Proportional scoring (52)
Proportional-Voting RulesJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/proportional-voting-rules/https://rconstitution.us/proportional-voting-rules/0.0Proportional voting (52)
Schedules and Controls PowerJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/schedules-and-controls-power/https://rconstitution.us/schedules-and-controls-power/#comments0.0Schedules and controls (43)
Strongest-State-to-Weakest RuleJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/strongest-state-to-weakest-rule/https://rconstitution.us/strongest-state-to-weakest-rule/#comments0.0Strongest to weakest (53)
Voting-Record RuleJames AnthonyThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries2018-11-222018-11-22https://rconstitution.us/voting-record-rule/https://rconstitution.us/voting-record-rule/#comments0.0Voting scores (48)
War Powers and the Effects of Unauthorized Military Engagements on Federal SpendingJonathan Turley2018-06-062018-06-06https://www.hsgac.senate.gov/imo/media/doc/Turley%20Testimony1.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/war-powers-and-the-effects-of-unauthorized-military-engagements-on-federal-spending/0.5Army, Navy, Militia command (II.2.1)
Who Are “Officers of the United States”?Jennifer MascottStanford Law Review2018-02-012018-02-01https://review.law.stanford.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2018/02/70-Stan.-L.-Rev.-443.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/who-are-officers-of-the-united-states/5.1Inferior-appointments vesting (II.2.2)
Veto Override Requirements and Executive SuccessRobert McGrath, Jon Rogowski, Josh RyanPolitical Science Research and Methods2018-01-012018-01-01https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/rogowski/files/mcgrath_etal_2018.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/veto-override-requirements-and-executive-success/1.5Congresspeople reconsider bills (I.7.2)
Bill reconsideration (I.7.2)
The Rigors of a Rigged System? Delegate Allocation Rules in the 2008 and 2016 Presidential PrimariesBrittany Brake, John ClarkState of the Parties: 2016 and Beyond2017-11-072017-11-07https://www.uakron.edu/bliss/state-of-the-parties/papers/brake+clark.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-rigors-of-a-rigged-system-delegate-allocation-rules-in-the-2008-and-2016-presidential-primaries/0.4Proportional voting (52)
The Original Meaning of “Emoluments” in the ConstitutionRobert NatelsonGeorgia Law Review2017-11-012017-11-01https://www.georgialawreview.org/api/v1/articles/3371-the-original-meaning-of-emoluments-in-the-constitution.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-original-meaning-of-emoluments-in-the-constitution/1.8Consent to foreign gifts (I.9.8)
The Original Public Meaning of Amendment in the Origination Clause Versus the Patient Protection and Affordable Care ActDaniel SmythBritish Journal of American Legal Studies2017-11-012017-11-01https://www.degruyter.com/downloadpdf/j/bjals.2017.6.issue-2/bjals-2017-0015/bjals-2017-0015.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-original-public-meaning-of-amendment-in-the-origination-clause-versus-the-patient-protection-and-affordable-care-act/2.5Revenue bill origination (I.7.1)
Federal Land Ownership: Overview and DataCarol Vincent, Laura Hanson, Carla Argueta2017-03-032017-03-03https://fas.org/sgp/crs/misc/R42346.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/federal-land-ownership-overview-and-data/1.0Limited military-district laws (I.8.17)
Circuits or Circuses: The Case for Circuit Level Judicial ReformDaniel HorowitzConservative Review2017-02-152017-02-15https://www.conservativereview.com/news/circuits-or-circuses-heres-why-we-desperately-need-judicial-reform-at-the-circuit-court-level/https://rconstitution.us/circuits-or-circuses-the-case-for-circuit-level-judicial-reform/0.2Congresspeople create and redesign inferior national courts (I.8.9)
Inferior-court creation (I.8.9)
News Coverage of the 2016 Presidential Primaries: Horse Race Reporting Has ConsequencesThomas Patterson2016-12-012016-12-01https://shorensteincenter.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/Election-2016-Primary-Media-Coverage.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/news-coverage-of-the-2016-presidential-primaries-horse-race-reporting-has-consequences/0.7One state at a time (53)
12 Reasons Why Federal Judiciary Is Irremediably BrokenDaniel HorowitzConservative Review2016-08-022016-08-02https://www.conservativereview.com/news/12-reasons-why-federal-judiciary-is-irremediably-broken/https://rconstitution.us/12-reasons-why-federal-judiciary-is-irremediably-broken/0.3Congresspeople create and redesign inferior national courts (I.8.9)
Inferior-court creation (I.8.9)
The Unscripted Evolution of Presidential Nominations: From Founding-Era Idealism to the Dominance of Party PrimariesZachary BluestoneHarvard Journal of Law & Public Policy2016-08-012016-08-01https://www.harvard-jlpp.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/21/2010/01/39_3_Bluestone_F.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-unscripted-evolution-of-presidential-nominations-from-founding-era-idealism-to-the-dominance-of-party-primaries/1.4Caucuses (52)
Privatizing the U.S. Postal ServiceChris Edwards2016-04-012016-04-01https://www.downsizinggovernment.org/uspshttps://rconstitution.us/privatizing-the-us-postal-service/0.2Post offices and post roads (I.8.7)
The Postal Power of Congress: A Study in Constitutional ExpansionLindsay Rogers2016-01-012016-01-01https://books.googleusercontent.com/books/content?req=AKW5QadgSQwXPMlikqpvW0bPLqR_f6wzyiQ8ct2e6hDiFG12vlwFCq7h26P0qrNs_CICty2JSvAswa6WuJdtAe5jePa9KG0G1H3oyWGBNPJbXgoCFJEkhLrNnAmjxZrCsjzkvIqn__Lg4w1H2MHNW7xnALwLp_Sdb4cWul6cKd69SX-GdY8vUqo2cbYNaJdkeA2rZcrvnhttps://rconstitution.us/the-postal-power-of-congress-a-study-in-constitutional-expansion/5.1Post offices and post roads (I.8.7)
What the Constitution Means by “Duties, Imposts, and Excises” and “Taxes” (Direct or Otherwise)Robert NatelsonCase Western Reserve Law Review2015-12-012015-12-01https://scholarlycommons.law.case.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2649&context=caselrev#page=2https://rconstitution.us/what-the-constitution-means-by-duties-imposts-and-excises-and-taxes-direct-or-otherwise/2.0Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
Habeas Corpus and the American RevolutionAmanda TylerCalifornia Law Review2015-06-012015-06-01https://scholarship.law.berkeley.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4286&context=californialawreviewhttps://rconstitution.us/habeas-corpus-and-the-american-revolution/2.7Habeas corpus suspension (I.9.2)
The Origination Clause, the Affordable Care Act, and Indirect Constitutional ViolationsTessa DysartCornell Journal of Law and Public Policy2015-05-012015-05-01https://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1419&context=cjlpp#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-origination-clause-the-affordable-care-act-and-indirect-constitutional-violations/1.6Revenue bill origination (I.7.1)
Casting Votes of the Vice-Presidents, 1789-1915Henry LearnedThe American Historical Review2015-04-012015-04-01https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/1835860.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A58f0584695d233394e42adefbeaf21d9#page=2https://rconstitution.us/casting-votes-of-the-vice-presidents-1789-1915/0.2Vice president votes in equally-divided Senate (I.3.4)
Senate vote when equally divided (I.3.4)
Southern Delegates and Republican National Convention Politics, 1880-1928Boris Heersink, Jeffery JenkinsStudies in American Political Development2015-04-012015-04-01https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/5650/5a09912680cde987141e368909c17a5f2b4c.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/southern-delegates-and-republican-national-convention-politics-1880-1928/1.4Electoral college (52)
Clarity and Reasonable Doubt in Early State-Constitutional Judicial ReviewChristopher GreenSouth Texas Law Review2015-01-012015-01-01https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=2660820640820240280880230990820060001010150020330020300900831180060710861060670280070290260170100471020211260970030160780960031040820300640060690950241170761080760620020331261130900281250870100970921221030820121https://rconstitution.us/clarity-and-reasonable-doubt-in-early-state-constitutional-judicial-review/1.2State judges opine (VI.3)
Abolition of SlaveryHerman BelzThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/amendments/13/essays/166/abolition-of-slaveryhttps://rconstitution.us/abolition-of-slavery/0.2Slavery, involuntary-servitude laws (13.2)
AdmiraltyDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/110/admiraltyhttps://rconstitution.us/admiralty/0.1Cases of admiralty and maritime (III.2.1)
AmbassadorsDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/109/ambassadorshttps://rconstitution.us/ambassadors/0.1Cases on ambassadors, ministers, consuls (III.2.1)
AmendmentsTrent EnglandThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/5/essays/129/amendmentshttps://rconstitution.us/amendments/0.1Amendment proposal (V)
Amendment ratification (V)
Appellate Jurisdiction ClauseAndrew GoldThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/117/appellate-jurisdiction-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/appellate-jurisdiction-clause/0.2Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Judicial power exceptions, regulations (III.2.2)
Appointments ClauseJohn McGinnisThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/91/appointments-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/appointments-clause/0.2Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
Appointment making (II.2.2)
Appointment advice, consent (II.2.2)
Army ClauseMackubin OwensThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/52/army-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/army-clause/0.2Army raising and support up to 2 years (I.8.12)
Bankruptcy ClauseTodd ZywickiThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/41/bankruptcy-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/bankruptcy-clause/0.1Bankruptcy laws (I.8.4)
Borrowing ClauseClaire PriestThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/36/borrowing-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/borrowing-clause/0.1Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
Captures ClauseJohn YooThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/51/captures-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/captures-clause/0.1Capture rules (I.8.11)
Citizen-State DiversityErnest YoungThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/113/citizen-state-diversityhttps://rconstitution.us/citizen-state-diversity/0.1Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
Coinage ClauseTodd ZywickiThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/42/coinage-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/coinage-clause/0.1Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
Commander in ChiefJohn YooThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/86/commander-in-chiefhttps://rconstitution.us/commander-in-chief/0.1Army, Navy, Militia command (II.2.1)
Commander of MilitiaDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/87/commander-of-militiahttps://rconstitution.us/commander-of-militia/0.1Army, Navy, Militia command (II.2.1)
Commerce among the StatesDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/38/commerce-among-the-stateshttps://rconstitution.us/commerce-among-the-states/0.4Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
Commerce with Foreign NationsDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/37/commerce-with-foreign-nationshttps://rconstitution.us/commerce-with-foreign-nations/0.1Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
Commerce with the Indian TribesDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/39/commerce-with-the-indian-tribeshttps://rconstitution.us/commerce-with-the-indian-tribes/0.1Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
CounterfeitingDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/44/counterfeitinghttps://rconstitution.us/counterfeiting/0.1Counterfeiting punishments (I.8.6)
Declare WarJohn YooThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/49/declare-warhttps://rconstitution.us/declare-war/0.2War declaration (I.8.11)
Diversity ClauseTerence PellThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/114/diversity-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/diversity-clause/0.1Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
Emoluments ClauseRobert DelahuntyThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/68/emoluments-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/emoluments-clause/0.1Consent to foreign gifts (I.9.8)
Enclave ClauseLee CaseyThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/57/enclave-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/enclave-clause/0.1Limited government-district laws (I.8.17)
Executive Vesting ClauseSaikrishna PrakashThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/76/executive-vesting-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/executive-vesting-clause/0.1The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
Federal PartyPaul RosenzweigThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/111/federal-partyhttps://rconstitution.us/federal-party/0.1Controversies involving USA (III.2.1)
ImpeachmentStephen PresserThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/11/impeachmenthttps://rconstitution.us/impeachment/0.1Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Impeachment (I.2.5)
Income TaxErik JensenThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/amendments/16/essays/177/income-taxhttps://rconstitution.us/income-tax/0.1Income-tax laws (16)
Inferior CourtsDavid EngdahlThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/47/inferior-courtshttps://rconstitution.us/inferior-courts/0.2Congresspeople create and redesign inferior national courts (I.8.9)
Inferior-court creation (I.8.9)
Inferior OfficersDouglas CoxThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/92/inferior-officershttps://rconstitution.us/inferior-officers/0.1Inferior-appointments vesting (II.2.2)
Interstate DisputesPaul RosenzweigThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/112/interstate-disputeshttps://rconstitution.us/interstate-disputes/0.1Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
Judicial PowerArthur HellmanThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/107/judicial-powerhttps://rconstitution.us/judicial-power/0.2Cases under Constitution, USA laws (III.2.1)
Judicial Vesting ClauseRobert PushawThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/102/judicial-vesting-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/judicial-vesting-clause/0.1National judges opine (III.1, VI.3)
The judicial power of the USA (III.1)
Legislative Vesting ClauseGary LawsonThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/2/legislative-vesting-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/legislative-vesting-clause/0.3All legislative powers of the USA (I.1)
Marque and ReprisalJohn YooThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/50/marque-and-reprisalhttps://rconstitution.us/marque-and-reprisal/0.1Marque and reprisal (I.8.11)
Military InstallationsLee CaseyThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/58/military-installationshttps://rconstitution.us/military-installations/0.1Limited military-district laws (I.8.17)
Military RegulationsDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/54/military-regulationshttps://rconstitution.us/military-regulations/0.2Land- and naval-force rules (I.8.14)
Militia ClauseMackubin OwensThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/55/militia-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/militia-clause/0.1Militia-calling provisions (I.8.15)
NaturalizationJoseph BessetteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/40/naturalizationhttps://rconstitution.us/naturalization/0.2Naturalization rules (I.8.4)
Navy ClauseMackubin OwensThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/53/navy-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/navy-clause/0.1Navy provision and maintenance (I.8.13)
Oath of OfficeVasan KesavanThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/85/oath-of-officehttps://rconstitution.us/oath-of-office/0.1President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
President intervenes on unconstitutional state-government actions (II.1.8)
Oaths ClauseMatthew SpaldingThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/6/essays/134/oaths-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/oaths-clause/0.1State executives disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State legislators disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
Congresspeople disregard unconstitutional opinions (VI.3)
Congresspeople intervene on unconstitutional state-government actions (VI.3)
State judges opine (VI.3)
National judges opine (III.1, VI.3)
Offenses Against the Law of Nations ClauseDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/48/offenses-against-the-law-of-nations-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/offenses-against-the-law-of-nations-clause/0.1Law of nations offenses (I.8.10)
Organizing the MilitiaMackubin OwensThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/56/organizing-the-militiahttps://rconstitution.us/organizing-the-militia/0.1Militia rules for USA service (I.8.16)
Origination ClauseErik JensenThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/30/origination-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/origination-clause/0.1Revenue bill origination (I.7.1)
Pardon PowerJames PfiffnerThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/89/pardon-powerhttps://rconstitution.us/pardon-power/0.1Reprieve, pardon except on impeachment (II.2.1)
Patent and Copyright ClauseThomas NachbarThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/46/patent-and-copyright-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/patent-and-copyright-clause/0.1Limited exclusive rights for inventors and authors (I.8.8)
Poll TaxesDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/amendments/24/essays/186/poll-taxeshttps://rconstitution.us/poll-taxes/0.1Voting-tax prohibition laws (24.2)
Post OfficeDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/45/post-officehttps://rconstitution.us/post-office/0.1Post offices and post roads (I.8.7)
Presentment ClauseMichael RappaportThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/31/presentment-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/presentment-clause/0.2President objects to bills (I.7.2)
Congresspeople reconsider bills (I.7.2)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)
Bill reconsideration (I.7.2)
Punishment for ImpeachmentMichael GerhardtThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/18/punishment-for-impeachmenthttps://rconstitution.us/punishment-for-impeachment/0.1Senators try impeachments (I.3.6, I.3.7)
Punishment of TreasonBradley WatsonThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/120/punishment-of-treasonhttps://rconstitution.us/punishment-of-treason/0.0Treason punishment (III.3.2)
Recess Appointments ClauseMichael CarrierThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/93/recess-appointments-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/recess-appointments-clause/0.1Senate-recess commissions (II.2.3)
Repeal of ProhibitionDavid WagnerThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/amendments/21/essays/183/repeal-of-prohibitionhttps://rconstitution.us/repeal-of-prohibition/0.1Liquor-transport or -import laws (21.2)
Reserved Powers of the StatesCharles CooperThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/amendments/10/essays/163/reserved-powers-of-the-stateshttps://rconstitution.us/reserved-powers-of-the-states/0.2President executes powers delegated to national government over states (VI.2, 10)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
Spending ClauseJohn EastmanThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/34/spending-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/spending-clause/0.3Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
Suffrage—RaceEarl MaltzThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/amendments/15/essays/176/suffrage-racehttps://rconstitution.us/suffrage-race/0.1Voting laws (15.2)
Supremacy ClauseGary LawsonThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/6/essays/133/supremacy-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/supremacy-clause/0.2President executes powers delegated to national government over states (VI.2, 10)
Suspension of Habeas CorpusDavid ForteThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/61/habeas-corpushttps://rconstitution.us/suspension-of-habeas-corpus/0.2Habeas corpus suspension (I.9.2)
The Heritage Guide to the ConstitutionMatthew Spalding, David F. Forte, editors2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitutionhttps://rconstitution.us/the-heritage-guide-to-the-constitution/0.0Offsetting powers
Scope
Processes
TreatiesDennis ArrowThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/3/essays/108/treatieshttps://rconstitution.us/treaties/0.1Cases under treaties (III.2.1)
Treaty ClauseMichael RamseyThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/2/essays/90/treaty-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/treaty-clause/0.3President blocks treaties (II.2.2)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
Treaty making (II.2.2)
Trial of ImpeachmentMichael GerhardtThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/17/trial-of-impeachmenthttps://rconstitution.us/trial-of-impeachment/0.1Senators try impeachments (I.3.6, I.3.7)
Chief justice presides over impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)
Impeachment trial (I.3.6)
Impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)
Uniformity ClauseNelson LundThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/35/uniformity-clausehttps://rconstitution.us/uniformity-clause/0.1Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
Vice President as Presiding OfficerPeter SchrammThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/15/vice-president-as-presiding-officerhttps://rconstitution.us/vice-president-as-presiding-officer/0.0Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
Vice president votes in equally-divided Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)
Weights and MeasuresEric ChiappinelliThe Heritage Guide to the Constitution2014-09-152014-09-15https://www.heritage.org/constitution/#!/articles/1/essays/43/weights-and-measureshttps://rconstitution.us/weights-and-measures/0.0Weights and measures standards (I.8.5)
Saying Too Little, Too Late: Public Finance Textbooks and the Excess Burdens of TaxationCecil Bohanon, John Horowitz, James McClureEcon Journal Watch2014-09-012014-09-01http://econjwatch.org/file_download/832/bohanonhorowitzmccluresept2014.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/saying-too-little-too-late-public-finance-textbooks-and-the-excess-burdens-of-taxation/0.6Income-tax laws (16)
Nine Criteria to Evaluate LegislationLockeandSmith.com2014-08-262014-08-26http://lockeandsmith.com/wp-content/uploads/2019/03/Nine-Criteria-Long.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/nine-criteria-to-evaluate-legislation/0.1Voting scores (48)
Regular Vetoes and Pocket Vetoes: An OverviewKevin Kosar2014-06-182014-06-18https://www.everycrsreport.com/files/20140618_RS22188_9e132216c71122a494b120465d15d3576420934c.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/regular-vetoes-and-pocket-vetoes-an-overview/0.2Congresspeople reconsider bills (I.7.2)
Bill reconsideration (I.7.2)
Rules of Engagement and Abusive CitizensAmitai EtzioniPRISM2014-04-012014-04-01https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/26549754.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A10d78f09915a7a3221aaa0ec54e5a710#page=2https://rconstitution.us/rules-of-engagement-and-abusive-citizens/0.7Land- and naval-force rules (I.8.14)
The U.S. Secret Service: History and MissionsShawn Reese2014-03-252014-03-25https://fas.org/sgp/crs/homesec/RL34603.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-us-secret-service-history-and-missions/0.7Counterfeiting punishments (I.8.6)
Does High Public Debt Consistently Stifle Economic Growth? A Critique of Reinhart and RogoffThomas Herndon, Michael Ash, Robert PollinCambridge Journal of Economics2014-03-012014-03-01https://www.peri.umass.edu/fileadmin/pdf/other_publication_types/magazine___journal_articles/Does_High_Public_Debt_Consistently_Stifle_Economic_Growth__CJE_version.pdf#page=13https://rconstitution.us/does-high-public-debt-consistently-stifle-economic-growth-a-critique-of-reinhart-and-rogoff/0.9Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
Illusion of Suffrage: Female Voting Rights and the Women’s Poll Tax Repeal Movement after the Nineteenth AmendmentRonnie PodolefskyNotre Dame Law Review, vol. 73, no. 3, Feb. 2014, pp. 839-8882014-02-012014-02-01http://scholarship.law.nd.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1776&context=ndlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/illusion-of-suffrage-female-voting-rights-and-the-womens-poll-tax-repeal-movement-after-the-nineteenth-amendment/1.6Voting-tax prohibition laws (24.2)
The Origins and Meaning of “Vacancies That May Happen during the Recess” in the Constitution’s Recess Appointments ClauseRobert NatelsonHarvard Journal of Law & Public Policy2014-02-012014-02-01https://www.harvard-jlpp.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/21/2014/01/37_1_199_Natelson.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-origins-and-meaning-of-vacancies-that-may-happen-during-the-recess-in-the-constitutions-recess-appointments-clause/1.5Senate-recess commissions (II.2.3)
Fiscal Discriminations in Three WarsGeorge Hall, Thomas SargentJournal of Monetary Economics2014-01-012014-01-01https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=5991100061190230270981000161061041170630920050210010650870730770180660281251241030050500230020570070360060221020291060871220720370180870360850271140890010931200900210150071180030841150191130031051171160051260930https://rconstitution.us/fiscal-discriminations-in-three-wars/1.0Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
Optimal PrimariesPatrick Hummel, Richard HoldenJournal of Public Economics2014-01-012014-01-01http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.715.1773&rep=rep1&type=pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/optimal-primaries/1.2Strongest to weakest (53)
Suspension and DelegationAmy BarrettCornell Law Review2014-01-012014-01-01http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4618&context=clr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/suspension-and-delegation/3.4Habeas corpus suspension (I.9.2)
The Filibuster and the Framing: Why the Cloture Rule is Unconstitutional and What To Do About It, pp. 49-50Dan CoenenBoston College Law Review2014-01-012014-01-01https://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3350&context=bclr#page=12https://rconstitution.us/the-filibuster-and-the-framing-why-the-cloture-rule-is-unconstitutional-and-what-to-do-about-it-pp-49-50/0.0Vice president votes in equally-divided Senate (I.3.4)
Senate vote when equally divided (I.3.4)
State Constitutional Prohibitions on Special LawsJustin LongCleveland State Law Review2012-12-012012-12-01https://engagedscholarship.csuohio.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1025&context=clevstlrev#page=2https://rconstitution.us/state-constitutional-prohibitions-on-special-laws/2.3State judges opine (VI.3)
The Long Winding Road to the White House: Caucuses, Primaries and National Party Conventions in the History of American Presidential ElectionsMichael DunneThe Historian2012-10-102012-10-10https://www.history.org.uk/files/download/10747/1349794761/Dunne.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-long-winding-road-to-the-white-house-caucuses-primaries-and-national-party-conventions-in-the-history-of-american-presidential-elections/0.5Meetings (43)
The Forgotten Core Meaning of the Suspension ClauseAmanda TylerHarvard Law Review2012-02-012012-02-01https://cdn.harvardlawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/pdfs/vol125_tyler.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-forgotten-core-meaning-of-the-suspension-clause/4.9Habeas corpus suspension (I.9.2)
The First Ever (Maybe) Original Jurisdiction StandingsJay Wexler, David HattonJournal of Legal Metrics2012-01-042012-01-04https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=7490250710661190210201000820200771070540190170540890750230691140970700040280860960930090300981191100600471020980691141181110140160850690070120800030061201160280960730480671050910921031141171020290110780241070130https://rconstitution.us/the-first-ever-maybe-original-jurisdiction-standings/0.1Cases on ambassadors, ministers, consuls (III.2.1)
How to Count to Thirty-Four: The Constitutional Case for a Constitutional ConventionMichael PaulsenHarvard Journal of Law & Public Policy2011-08-012011-08-01https://www.harvard-jlpp.com/wp-content/uploads/sites/21/2013/10/34_3_837_Paulsen-1.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/how-to-count-to-thirty-four-the-constitutional-case-for-a-constitutional-convention/0.8Amendment proposal (V)
Unconventional Wisdom: The Future of Presidential Nominating ConventionsSandy Maisel, Justin Rouse, Russell WilsonNew England Journal of Political Science2011-05-012011-05-01https://c62a1cd8-e60b-4682-b2c5-a937642d5637.filesusr.com/ugd/7d6421_be8fbb80fb21401783fca33c168b0744.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/unconventional-wisdom-the-future-of-presidential-nominating-conventions/0.9Meetings (43)
America’s Turning PointJeffrey Rogers HummelThe Freeman2011-04-012011-04-01https://scholarworks.sjsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1011&context=econ_pub#page=2https://rconstitution.us/americas-turning-point/0.2President intervenes on unconstitutional state-government actions (II.1.8)
Congresspeople intervene on unconstitutional state-government actions (VI.3)
Whence Comes Section One? The Abolitionist Origins of the Fourteenth AmendmentRandy BarnettJournal of Legal Analysis2011-03-012011-03-01https://watermark.silverchair.com/3-1-165.pdf?token=AQECAHi208BE49Ooan9kkhW_Ercy7Dm3ZL_9Cf3qfKAc485ysgAAAlIwggJOBgkqhkiG9w0BBwagggI_MIICOwIBADCCAjQGCSqGSIb3DQEHATAeBglghkgBZQMEAS4wEQQM7seq7VNfMzIItbgxAgEQgIICBUZibh6DZMSdUk8jTmCZKwvtWUd-NOzloNZMVJ08S9NE1C7https://rconstitution.us/whence-comes-section-one-the-abolitionist-origins-of-the-fourteenth-amendment/3.6Slavery, involuntary-servitude laws (13.2)
Proposing Constitutional Amendments by Convention: Rules Governing the ProcessRobert NatelsonTennessee Law Review2011-01-012011-01-01https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/37195330/Rules_for_Art_V_Conventions.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DProposing_Constitutional_Amendments_by_C.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3https://rconstitution.us/proposing-constitutional-amendments-by-convention-rules-governing-the-process/2.2Amendment proposal (V)
States Should Enforce, Not Revise, the ConstitutionLarry GreenleyThe New American2010-12-062010-12-06https://www.thenewamerican.com/usnews/constitution/item/7836-states-should-enforce-not-revise-the-constitutionhttps://rconstitution.us/states-should-enforce-not-revise-the-constitution/0.4Amendment proposal (V)
Momentum and Social Learning in Presidential PrimariesBrian Knight, Nathan SchiffJournal of Political Economy2010-12-012010-12-01https://cpb-us-w2.wpmucdn.com/sites.brown.edu/dist/d/75/files/2019/05/Momentum-and-Social-Learning-in-Presidential-Primaries.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/momentum-and-social-learning-in-presidential-primaries/1.3Schedules and controls (43)
Strongest to weakest (53)
Truth and Consequences: A Guide to Understanding the U.S. Government Debt and DeficitsMargaret Polski, Sarah Nutter2010-12-012010-12-01https://www.mercatus.org/system/files/Truth%20and%20Consequences.Polski.Nutter.12.20.10.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/truth-and-consequences-a-guide-to-understanding-the-us-government-debt-and-deficits/0.5Borrowing on credit of USA (I.8.2)
A Civilized Nation: The Early American Constitution, the Law of Nations, and the Pursuit of International RecognitionDavid Golove, Daniel HulseboschNew York University Law Review2010-10-012010-10-01https://www.nyulawreview.org/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/NYULawReview-85-4-Golove-Hulsebosch.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/a-civilized-nation-the-early-american-constitution-the-law-of-nations-and-the-pursuit-of-international-recognition/5.8Controversies involving USA (III.2.1)
Federal Governmental Power: The Voting Rights ActMichael DorfTouro Law Review2010-09-012010-09-01http://digitalcommons.tourolaw.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1184&context=lawreview#page=3https://rconstitution.us/federal-governmental-power-the-voting-rights-act/0.3Voting laws (15.2)
The Primary Purpose of Presidential PrimariesDennis ThompsonPolitical Science Quarterly2010-08-012010-08-01https://dash.harvard.edu/bitstream/handle/1/9637980/Thompson_Primary.pdf;sequence=2https://rconstitution.us/the-primary-purpose-of-presidential-primaries/1.2One state at a time (53)
The Internal and External Powers of the National GovernmentGeorge SutherlandThe North American Review2010-03-012010-03-01https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/25106613.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A3bc132e410397a1518279366d9d350ed#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-internal-and-external-powers-of-the-national-government/0.6President executes powers delegated to national government over states (VI.2, 10)
Following the Rules? Candidate Strategy in Presidential PrimariesTravis Ridout, Brandon Rottinghaus, Nathan HoseySocial Science Quarterly2009-12-012009-12-01https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/48870303/Following_20the_20Rules_20Final_20SSQ.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DFollowing_the_Rules_Candidate_Strategy_i.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAIWOWYhttps://rconstitution.us/following-the-rules-candidate-strategy-in-presidential-primaries/0.6Proportional voting (52)
The Original Understanding of the Capture ClauseAaron SimowitzDePaul Law Review2009-12-012009-12-01http://via.library.depaul.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1164&context=law-review#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-original-understanding-of-the-capture-clause/0.7Capture rules (I.8.11)
The Roles of Party Organizations, Party-Connected Committees, and Party Allies in ElectionsPaul HerrnsonThe Journal of Politics2009-10-012009-10-01https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/667f/2d741792facb8d8cd7de3593d8f10449c8c0.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-roles-of-party-organizations-party-connected-committees-and-party-allies-in-elections/1.2Donations (43)
The Klan, the Congress, and the Court: Congressional Enforcement of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments & the State Action Syllogism, a Brief Historical OverviewMichael CurtisUniversity of Pennsylvania Journal of Constitutional Law2009-07-012009-07-01http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1179&context=jclhttps://rconstitution.us/the-klan-the-congress-and-the-court-congressional-enforcement-of-the-fourteenth-and-fifteenth-amendments-the-state-action-syllogism-a-brief-historical-overview/1.8Voting laws (15.2)
“Split Screens” and “Spin Rooms”: Debate Modality, Post-Debate Coverage, and the New VideomalaiseJaeho Cho, Dhavan Shah, Seungahn Nah, Dominique BrossardJournal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media2009-06-012009-06-01https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/41359129/JOBEM2009.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DSplit_Screens_and_Spin_Rooms_Debate_Mod.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A%2F20200221%2Fus-ehttps://rconstitution.us/split-screens-and-spin-rooms-debate-modality-post-debate-coverage-and-the-new-videomalaise/0.8Debates (49)
Does the Constitution Prescribe Rules for Its Own Interpretation? [SSRN version]Michael PaulsenNorthwestern University Law Review2009-05-012009-05-01https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=9810080640221070280940820880921150871270320280460500250141190660881150870270971120220180600990090240421131011051180030100000070420510880340390930010991261261180950520600070940871061221261250751000120670991060810https://rconstitution.us/does-the-constitution-prescribe-rules-for-its-own-interpretation-ssrn-version/2.9Congresspeople disregard unconstitutional opinions (VI.3)
The Constitution’s CongressGary LawsonBoston University Law Review2009-04-012009-04-01http://www.bu.edu/law/journals-archive/bulr/volume89n2/documents/LAWSON.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-constitutions-congress/0.3Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)
Immigration Law: A PrimerMichael Scaperlanda2009-01-012009-01-01https://www.fjc.gov/sites/default/files/2012/ImmLaw09.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/immigration-law-a-primer/5.1Naturalization rules (I.8.4)
Meaningful Participation and the Evolution of the Reformed Presidential Nominating SystemLonna Atkeson, Cherie MaestasPS: Political Science and Politics2009-01-012009-01-01https://www.unm.edu/~atkeson/AtkesonMaestas_2009.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/meaningful-participation-and-the-evolution-of-the-reformed-presidential-nominating-system/0.5Schedules and controls (43)
Presidential Debates and Deliberative DemocracyCharles CollierYale Law Journal Pocket Part2008-06-162008-06-16https://www.yalelawjournal.org/forum/presidential-debates-and-deliberative-democracyhttps://rconstitution.us/presidential-debates-and-deliberative-democracy/0.2Debates (49)
Liquor Laws and Constitutional Conventions: A Legal History of the Twenty-First AmendmentEthan Davis2008-04-092008-04-09https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1065&context=student_papers#page=2https://rconstitution.us/liquor-laws-and-constitutional-conventions-a-legal-history-of-the-twenty-first-amendment/1.3Liquor-transport or -import laws (21.2)
Too Clever by Half: The Unconstitutionality of Partial Representation of the District of Columbia in CongressJonathan TurleyThe George Washington Law Review2008-02-012008-02-01http://www.gwlr.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/76_2_Turley.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/too-clever-by-half-the-unconstitutionality-of-partial-representation-of-the-district-of-columbia-in-congress/2.5Limited government-district laws (I.8.17)
The Rise, Fall, and Rise Again of PrivateersAlexander TabarrokThe Independent Review2007-05-012007-05-01https://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_11_04_06_tabarrok.pdf#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-rise-fall-and-rise-again-of-privateers/0.5Marque and reprisal (I.8.11)
The Utility of Party Conventions in an Era of Low Visibility and Campaign Finance ReformMark WrightonRewiring Politics: Presidential Nominating Conventions in the Media Age2007-01-012007-01-01https://www.researchgate.net/profile/J_Mark_Wrighton/publication/292970349_The_Utility_of_Party_Conventions_in_an_Era_of_Low_Visibility_and_Campaign_Finance_Reform/links/56b2ae3c08ae56d7b06cd7ae.pdf#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-utility-of-party-conventions-in-an-era-of-low-visibility-and-campaign-finance-reform/0.5Meetings (43)
The Forgotten Constitutional Law of Treason and the Enemy Combatant ProblemCarlton LarsonUniversity of Pennsylvania Law Review2006-04-012006-04-01http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1303&context=penn_law_reviewhttps://rconstitution.us/the-forgotten-constitutional-law-of-treason-and-the-enemy-combatant-problem/2.3Treason punishment (III.3.2)
The US Constitution and Monetary Powers: An Analysis of the 1787 Constitutional Convention and How a Constitutional Transformation of the Nation’s Monetary System Emerged [CiteSeerX]Farley Grubb2005-11-012005-11-01http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.969.1444&rep=rep1&type=pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-us-constitution-and-monetary-powers-an-analysis-of-the-1787-constitutional-convention-and-how-a-constitutional-transformation-of-the-nations-monetary-system-emerged-citeseerx/1.2Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
Congress Gave and Congress Hath Taken Away: Jurisdiction Withdrawal and the ConstitutionTravis BarhamWashington and Lee Law Review2005-06-012005-06-01https://scholarlycommons.law.wlu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1287&context=wlulr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/congress-gave-and-congress-hath-taken-away-jurisdiction-withdrawal-and-the-constitution/3.0Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Judicial power exceptions, regulations (III.2.2)
Federal Land Retention and the Constitution’s Property Clause: The Original UnderstandingRobert NatelsonUniversity of Colorado Law Review2005-05-012005-05-01https://scholarship.law.umt.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1072&context=faculty_lawreviews#page=2https://rconstitution.us/federal-land-retention-and-the-constitutions-property-clause-the-original-understanding/2.2Limited military-district laws (I.8.17)
Roles and Responsibilities of Selected Leadership PositionsNCSL.org2005-01-202005-01-20https://www.ncsl.org/legislators-staff/legislators/legislative-leaders/leadership-positions-roles-and-responsibilities.aspx#poshttps://rconstitution.us/roles-and-responsibilities-of-selected-leadership-positions/0.1Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)
The Constitution and National Security: The Intent of the Framers [Google Books reader]Richard KohnAmerican Defense Policy2005-01-012005-01-01https://books.google.com/books?id=5e_GhhBg2qcC&ppis=_c&lpg=PP1&dq=american%20defense%20policy&pg=PA88#v=onepage&q&f=falsehttps://rconstitution.us/the-constitution-and-national-security-the-intent-of-the-framers-google-books-reader/1.4Militia rules for USA service (I.8.16)
The Consequences of Front-Loading. The Front-Loading Problem in Presidential Nominations, pp. 56-94 [Internet Archive reader/loan]William Mayer, Andrew BuschThe Review of Politics2004-01-012004-01-01https://archive.org/details/frontloadingprob00maye/page/56/mode/2uphttps://rconstitution.us/the-consequences-of-front-loading-the-front-loading-problem-in-presidential-nominations-pp-56-94-internet-archive-reader/loan/1.4One state at a time (53)
The General Welfare Clause and the Public Trust: An Essay in Original UnderstandingRobert NatelsonThe University of Kansas Law Review2003-11-012003-11-01https://scholarship.law.umt.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1094&context=faculty_lawreviews#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-general-welfare-clause-and-the-public-trust-an-essay-in-original-understanding/2.2Taxes, duties, imposts, excises (I.8.1)
Estimating the Worldwide Volume of Counterfeit U.S. Currency: Data and ExtrapolationRuth Judson, Richard Porter2003-09-012003-09-01https://www.federalreserve.gov/pubs/feds/2003/200352/200352pap.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/estimating-the-worldwide-volume-of-counterfeit-us-currency-data-and-extrapolation/0.8Counterfeiting punishments (I.8.6)
Structuralism and the War Powers: The Army, Navy and Militia ClausesRobert DelahuntyGeorgia State University Law Review2003-08-012003-08-01https://readingroom.law.gsu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1993&context=gsulr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/structuralism-and-the-war-powers-the-army-navy-and-militia-clauses/1.5Militia-calling provisions (I.8.15)
The Irrepressible Myth of MarburyMichael PaulsenMichigan Law Review2003-08-012003-08-01https://repository.law.umich.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1764&context=mlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-irrepressible-myth-of-marbury/1.6Cases under Constitution, USA laws (III.2.1)
The judicial power of the USA (III.1)
A Promise Fulfilled? Open Primaries and RepresentationKaren Kaufmann, James Gimpel, Adam HoffmanThe Journal of Politics2003-05-012003-05-01https://www.researchgate.net/profile/James_Gimpel/publication/229696472_A_Promise_Fulfilled_Open_Primaries_and_Representation/links/5cc9a47192851c8d22127eaa/A-Promise-Fulfilled-Open-Primaries-and-Representation.pdf#page=3https://rconstitution.us/a-promise-fulfilled-open-primaries-and-representation/0.8Closed voting (52)
The Enumerated Powers of StatesRobert NatelsonNevada Law Journal2003-05-012003-05-01https://scholars.law.unlv.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&https:redir=1&article=1270&context=nljhttps://rconstitution.us/the-enumerated-powers-of-states/1.1State executives disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State legislators disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
The Essential Meaning of Executive PowerSaikrishna PrakashUniversity of Illinois Law Review2003-04-302003-04-30https://illinoislawreview.org/wp-content/ilr-content/articles/2003/3/Prakash.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-essential-meaning-of-executive-power/5.2The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
Senate Confirmation Process: An OverviewLorraine Tong2003-04-042003-04-04http://research.policyarchive.org/3494.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/senate-confirmation-process-an-overview/0.1Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
The Tenth Amendment and Local GovernmentJake SullivanThe Yale Law Journal2003-04-012003-04-01https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4855&context=ylj#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-tenth-amendment-and-local-government/0.3Scope not delegated to USA and not prohibited to states (10)
The Limited Nature of the Senate’s Advice and Consent RoleJohn EastmanUniversity of California Davis Law Review2003-02-012003-02-01https://lawreview.law.ucdavis.edu/issues/36/3/symposium-federal-judicial-selection-new-milennium/DavisVol36No3_Eastman.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-limited-nature-of-the-senates-advice-and-consent-role/1.2Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
Appointment advice, consent (II.2.2)
New Evidence of the Original Meaning of the Commerce ClauseRandy BarnettArkansas Law Review2003-01-012003-01-01https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=3901140061220991040670751031030641120560500650270390510780980040670640801120731261090050351070050610250440740780241221260700810380370780520000851070250980020980070040530350240831230830860830220210201090940091121https://rconstitution.us/new-evidence-of-the-original-meaning-of-the-commerce-clause/1.2Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
Our Three Commerce Clauses and the Presumption of Intrasentence UniformitySaikrishna PrakashArkansas Law Review2003-01-012003-01-01https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=9440030310171230980700040890940990990000560680390030001270720970720711270910050881181020070960011050130060940641201250270950890130190050260201250770090940240990890680760170970191111180070170191180070240660160821https://rconstitution.us/our-three-commerce-clauses-and-the-presumption-of-intrasentence-uniformity/0.8Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
The Law of Nations and the Offenses Clause of the Constitution: A Defense of FederalismMichael MorleyThe Yale Law Journal2002-10-012002-10-01https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4618&context=ylj#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-law-of-nations-and-the-offenses-clause-of-the-constitution-a-defense-of-federalism/1.5Law of nations offenses (I.8.10)
Delegation and Original MeaningGary LawsonVirginia Law Review2002-04-012002-04-01http://www.bu.edu/law/workingpapers-archive/abstracts/2001/pdf_files/lawsong100201.pdf#page=2https://rconstitution.us/delegation-and-original-meaning/2.5All legislative powers of the USA (I.1)
Rehnquist’s Renunciation? The Chief Justice’s Constitutional Duty to “Preside” over Impeachment TrialsMichael WilliamsWest Virginia Law Review2002-04-012002-04-01https://researchrepository.wvu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1469&context=wvlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/rehnquists-renunciation-the-chief-justices-constitutional-duty-to-preside-over-impeachment-trials/1.2Chief justice presides over impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)
Impeachment trial of president (I.3.6)
Military Leaders’ Obligation to Justify Killing in WarPeter KilnerMilitary Review2002-03-012002-03-01https://www.academia.edu/1419110/Military_Leaders_Obligation_to_Justify_Killing_in_Warhttps://rconstitution.us/military-leaders-obligation-to-justify-killing-in-war/0.5Land- and naval-force rules (I.8.14)
Patent and Copyright Term Extension and the Constitution: A Historical PerspectiveTyler OchoaJournal of the Copyright Society of the U.S.A.2001-11-012001-11-01https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=2210000020931220711241141031100710090260350410770880700770090950680930771210800981131070320441220201261110191131181150821041180220320920790361211010911241130760800170030100271191160650200650660290910041200961140https://rconstitution.us/patent-and-copyright-term-extension-and-the-constitution-a-historical-perspective/4.2Limited exclusive rights for inventors and authors (I.8.8)
The American Militia and the Origin of Conscription: A ReassessmentJeffrey Rogers HummelJournal of Libertarian Studies2001-10-012001-10-01https://mises-media.s3.amazonaws.com/15_4_2.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-american-militia-and-the-origin-of-conscription-a-reassessment/1.8Militia-calling provisions (I.8.15)
The Idea of Progress in Copyright LawMichael BirnhackBuffalo Intellectual Property Law Journal2001-07-012001-07-01https://digitalcommons.law.buffalo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1004&context=buffaloipjournal#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-idea-of-progress-in-copyright-law/2.1Limited exclusive rights for inventors and authors (I.8.8)
Everything I Need to Know About Presidents I Learned from Dr. Seuss [Questia paywall]Gary LawsonHarvard Journal of Law & Public Policy2001-05-012001-05-01https://www.questia.com/library/journal/1G1-74802872/everything-i-need-to-know-about-presidents-i-learnedhttps://rconstitution.us/everything-i-need-to-know-about-presidents-i-learned-from-dr-seuss-questia-paywall/0.4President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
The Original Meaning of the Commerce ClauseRandy BarnettThe University of Chicago Law Review2001-02-012001-02-01http://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=5074&context=uclrevhttps://rconstitution.us/the-original-meaning-of-the-commerce-clause/1.9Commerce regulations (I.8.3)
Meeting Analysis: Findings from Research and PracticeNicholas Romano, Jr., Jay Nunamaker, Jr.Proceedings of the 34th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences2001-01-062001-01-06https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/4829/576f7390f7581ab20b1c567d41212038ca84.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/meeting-analysis-findings-from-research-and-practice/0.9Caucuses (52)
A Manual of Parliamentary Practice for the Use of the Senate of the United StatesThomas Jefferson2001-01-012001-01-01https://www.senate.gov/artandhistory/history/resources/pdf/SDoc103-8.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/a-manual-of-parliamentary-practice-for-the-use-of-the-senate-of-the-united-states/3.1Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)
If It’s Not a Runaway, It’s Not a Real Grand JuryRoger RootsCreighton Law Review2000-06-012000-06-01https://dspace2.creighton.edu/xmlui/bitstream/handle/10504/40350/33_33CreightonLRev821(1999-2000).pdf?sequence=1https://rconstitution.us/if-its-not-a-runaway-its-not-a-real-grand-jury/0.9Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Impeachment (I.2.5)
Protecting Their Intellectual Assets: Appropriability Conditions and Why U.S. Manufacturing Firms Patent (or Not)Wesley Cohen, Richard Nelson, John Walsh2000-02-012000-02-01https://www.nber.org/papers/w7552.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/protecting-their-intellectual-assets-appropriability-conditions-and-why-u-s-manufacturing-firms-patent-or-not/1.6Limited exclusive rights for inventors and authors (I.8.8)
Martin Van Buren: The Greatest American PresidentJeffrey Rogers HummelThe Independent Review1999-11-011999-11-01https://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_04_2_hummel.pdf#page=2https://rconstitution.us/martin-van-buren-the-greatest-american-president/1.1Army, Navy, Militia command (II.2.1)
Admiralty and the Eleventh AmendmentDavid BedermanNotre Dame Law Review1999-06-011999-06-01https://scholarship.law.nd.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1846&context=ndlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/admiralty-and-the-eleventh-amendment/2.6Cases of admiralty and maritime (III.2.1)
Veto! The Jacksonian Revolution in Constitutional LawGerard MaglioccaNebraska Law Review1999-04-011999-04-01https://digitalcommons.unl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1441&context=nlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/veto!-the-jacksonian-revolution-in-constitutional-law/2.3President objects to bills (I.7.2)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)
Congress as Grand Jury: The Role of the House of Representatives in the Impeachment of an American President [HeinOnline paywall]Jonathan TurleyThe George Washington Law Review1999-03-011999-03-01https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/gwlr67&div=32&id=&page=https://rconstitution.us/congress-as-grand-jury-the-role-of-the-house-of-representatives-in-the-impeachment-of-an-american-president-heinonline-paywall/2.7Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Impeachment (I.2.5)
Impeachment: The Structural Understanding [HeinOnline paywall]John McGinnisThe George Washington Law Review1999-03-011999-03-01https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/gwlr67&div=27&id=&page=https://rconstitution.us/impeachment-the-structural-understanding-heinonline-paywall/0.7Impeachment (I.2.5)
The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions: Guideposts of Limited GovernmentWilliam Watkins, Jr.The Independent Review1999-02-011999-02-01https://www.independent.org/pdf/tir/tir_03_3_watkins.pdf#page=2The Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions Guideposts of Limited Government/1.1State executives disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
State legislators disregard unconstitutional statutes and opinions (VI.3)
History Right?: Historical Scholarship, Original Understanding, and Treaties as Supreme Law of the LandMartin FlahertykColumbia Law Review1999-01-011999-01-01https://ir.lawnet.fordham.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1727&context=faculty_scholarship#page=2https://rconstitution.us/history-right-historical-scholarship-original-understanding-and-treaties-as-supreme-law-of-the-land/2.5Cases under treaties (III.2.1)
The Evolution of Money: A Story of Constitutional NullificationAli KhanUniversity of Cincinnati Law Review1999-01-011999-01-01https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=0120171030060640971150260861230790271130780290650580580300910150280051200050841031251070160620381180630960040821141020800741210330920210390771260020030260030490750150130930950970250170910130150890291271110721270https://rconstitution.us/the-evolution-of-money-a-story-of-constitutional-nullification/2.0Money coinage and valuation (I.8.5)
The Island of Duty: The Practice of Immigration Law on Ellis IslandLouis AnthesNew York University Review of Law & Social Change1998-11-011998-11-01https://socialchangenyu.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/12/Louis-Anthes_RLSC_24.2.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-island-of-duty-the-practice-of-immigration-law-on-ellis-island/1.5Naturalization rules (I.8.4)
The Treaty Power and American FederalismCurtis BradleyMichigan Law Review1998-11-011998-11-01https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1979&context=faculty_scholarshiphttps://rconstitution.us/the-treaty-power-and-american-federalism/3.0Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
Treaty making (II.2.2)
Primary Election Systems and RepresentationElisabeth Gerber, Rebecca MortonJournal of Law, Economics, & Organization1998-10-011998-10-01https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/39034334/Primary-Election-Systems-and-Representation_1998.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DPrimary-Election-Systems-and-Representat.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credentiahttps://rconstitution.us/primary-election-systems-and-representation/0.9Closed voting (52)
Interests versus Ideology in the Ratification of the 16th and 17th AmendmentsRandall Holcombe, Donald LacombeEconomics and Politics1998-07-011998-07-01https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/51416407/1468-0343.0004220170118-30281-o1g6rz.pdf?response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DInterests_Versus_Ideology_in_the_Ratific.pdf&X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Credential=AKIAIWOWYYhttps://rconstitution.us/interests-versus-ideology-in-the-ratification-of-the-16th-and-17th-amendments/0.6Amendment ratification (V)
Against Campaign Finance Reform [HeinOnline paywall]Kathleen SullivanUtah Law Review1998-06-011998-06-01https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/utahlr1998&div=20&id=&page=https://rconstitution.us/against-campaign-finance-reform-heinonline-paywall/0.8Donations (43)
Estimating the Effect of Campaign Spending on Senate Election Outcomes Using Instrumental VariablesAlan GerberThe American Political Science Review1998-06-011998-06-01https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/865c/4f2e7fbe6f39fca07f0b413f1a331f4a7085.pdf#page=2https://rconstitution.us/estimating-the-effect-of-campaign-spending-on-senate-election-outcomes-using-instrumental-variables/0.8Donations (43)
Ratification of Amendments to the U.S. ConstitutionDavid Huckabee1997-09-301997-09-30https://digital.library.unt.edu/ark/67531/metacrs415/m1/1/high_res_d/97-922gov_1997Sep30.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/ratification-of-amendments-to-the-us-constitution/0.1Amendment ratification (V)
Congressional Control Over Federal Court Jurisdiction: A Defense of the Traditional ViewJulian VelascoCatholic University Law Review1997-05-011997-05-01https://scholarship.law.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&https:redir=1&article=1529&context=lawreview#page=2https://rconstitution.us/congressional-control-over-federal-court-jurisdiction-a-defense-of-the-traditional-view/3.9Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Judicial power exceptions, regulations (III.2.2)
Fame, the Founding, and the Power to Declare WarWilliam TreanorCornell Law Review1997-05-011997-05-01http://scholarship.law.cornell.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2685&context=clr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/fame-the-founding-and-the-power-to-declare-war/3.0War declaration (I.8.11)
The Proposed Amendments to the Constitution of the United States During the First Century of Its HistoryHerman AmesAnnual Report of the American Historical Association for the Year 18961997-01-011997-01-01https://archive.org/download/proposedamendmen00amesrich/proposedamendmen00amesrich.pdf#page=7https://rconstitution.us/the-proposed-amendments-to-the-constitution-of-the-united-states-during-the-first-century-of-its-history/15.6Amendment proposal (V)
Vice Presidents of the United States, 1789-1993, pp. xv-xviMark Hatfield, Donald Ritchie, Jo Anne McCormick Quatannens, Richard Baker, William Hull1997-01-011997-01-01https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/CDOC-104sdoc26/pdf/CDOC-104sdoc26.pdf#page=15https://rconstitution.us/vice-presidents-of-the-united-states-1789-1993-pp-xv-xvi/0.0Vice president presides over Senate (I.3.4)
President of Senate (I.3.4)
The Flat Tax: Simplicity DesimplifiedRoger GarrisonFEE.org1996-10-011996-10-01https://fee.org/articles/the-flat-tax-simplicity-desimplified/?gclid=CjwKCAiAh5_uBRA5EiwASW3IasqT8Rk_ZjYhRCe50o9JCkMOeApw9y67TOGiGMO5EGkDwCC4Lj1ZBRoC3xQQAvD_BwEhttps://rconstitution.us/the-flat-tax-simplicity-desimplified/0.3Income-tax laws (16)
“Little Wars” and the ConstitutionJules LobelUniversity of Miami Law Review1995-10-011995-10-01http://repository.law.miami.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1789&context=umlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/little-wars-and-the-constitution/0.7War declaration (I.8.11)
Some Normative Arguments for the Unitary ExecutiveSteven CalabresiArkansas Law Review1995-09-011995-09-01https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/arklr48&div=9https://rconstitution.us/some-normative-arguments-for-the-unitary-executive/2.5The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
The History of the Bankruptcy Laws in the United StatesCharles TabbAmerican Bankruptcy Institute Law Review1995-05-011995-05-01https://poseidon01.ssrn.com/delivery.php?ID=4790041000260740030940181221261140900560690850800280270230720210810910140070980641050040420260570510071171140960821041120080660450470560480480680290941211050880710730580140710641090731170750090851011021130711171https://rconstitution.us/the-history-of-the-bankruptcy-laws-in-the-united-states/1.9Bankruptcy laws (I.8.4)
The President’s Power To Execute the LawsSteven Calabresi, Saikrishna PrakashThe Yale Law Journal1994-12-011994-12-01https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7593&context=yljhttps://rconstitution.us/the-presidents-power-to-execute-the-laws/5.5The executive power of the USA (II.1.1)
“Abridge” Too Far: Racial Gerrymandering, the Fifteenth Amendment, and Shaw v. RenoJay ShepherdBoston College Third World Law Journal1994-06-011994-06-01https://lawdigitalcommons.bc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1276&context=twlj#page=2https://rconstitution.us/abridge-too-far-racial-gerrymandering-the-fifteenth-amendment-and-shaw-v-reno/1.2Voting laws (15.2)
Recovering the Political Constitution: The Madisonian Vision [JSTOR reader]George ThomasThe Review of Politics1994-05-011994-05-01https://www.jstor.org/stable/1408954?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contentshttps://rconstitution.us/recovering-the-political-constitution-the-madisonian-vision-jstor-reader/1.0Congresspeople disregard unconstitutional opinions (VI.3)
The Fatal Flaw in NAFTA, GATT and All Other Trade AgreementsRobert McGeeNorthwestern Journal of International Law & Business1994-05-011994-05-01https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&https:redir=1&article=1392&context=njilb#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-fatal-flaw-in-nafta-gatt-and-all-other-trade-agreements/0.6President blocks treaties (II.2.2)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
Treaty making (II.2.2)
Treatymaking (II.2.2)
The Most Dangerous Branch: Executive Power to Say What the Law Is [HeinOnline paywall]Michael PaulsenGeorgetown Law Journal1994-01-011994-01-01https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/glj83&div=24&id=&page=https://rconstitution.us/the-most-dangerous-branch-executive-power-to-say-what-the-law-is-heinonline-paywall/5.5President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
The “Proper” Scope of Federal Power: A Jurisdictional Interpretation of the Sweeping ClauseGary Lawson, Patricia B. GrangerDuke Law Journal1993-11-011993-11-01https://scholarship.law.duke.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3233&context=dljhttps://rconstitution.us/the-proper-scope-of-federal-power-a-jurisdictional-interpretation-of-the-sweeping-clause/2.5Post offices and post roads (I.8.7)
The President, the Senate, the Constitution, and the Confirmation Process: A Reply to Professors Strauss and Sunstein [HeinOnline paywall]John McGinnisTexas Law Review1993-02-011993-02-01https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/tlr71&div=21&id=&page=https://rconstitution.us/the-president-the-senate-the-constitution-and-the-confirmation-process-a-reply-to-professors-strauss-and-sunstein-heinonline-paywall/1.7Appointment making (II.2.2)
Constitutional Foundations of the United States Navy: Text and ContextJohn RohrNaval War College Review1992-02-011992-02-01https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/44637182.pdf?refreqid=excelsior%3A6df741b451c5c5af9e3de404447b0b9e#page=2https://rconstitution.us/constitutional-foundations-of-the-united-states-navy-text-and-context/0.7Navy provision and maintenance (I.8.13)
The Line-Item Veto: The Best Response When Congress Passes One Spending “Bill” a YearGordon CrovitzPepperdine Law Review1990-12-151990-12-15https://digitalcommons.pepperdine.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=https://www.bing.com/&https:redir=1&article=1660&context=plr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-line-item-veto-the-best-response-when-congress-passes-one-spending-bill-a-year/0.5President objects to bills (I.7.2)
Bill signing or objection (I.7.2)
“Advice” from the Very Beginning, “Consent” When the End Is Achieved [JSTOR reader]Arthur BestorThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries1989-10-011989-10-01https://www.jstor.org/stable/2203359?item_view=read_online&refreqid=excelsior%3Ad2979a33beb410ebd24fb5f85e6c597bhttps://rconstitution.us/advice-from-the-very-beginning-consent-when-the-end-is-achieved-jstor-reader/0.4Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
The Intended Role of the Senate in Supreme Court AppointmentsJames GauchThe University of Chicago Law Review1989-02-011989-02-01https://chicagounbound.uchicago.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4607&context=uclrevhttps://rconstitution.us/the-intended-role-of-the-senate-in-supreme-court-appointments/1.0Senators advise and consent on appointments (II.2.2)
No. 78. A View of the Constitution of the Judicial Department in Relation to the Tenure of Good BehaviorAlexander HamiltonThe Federalist1988-05-281988-05-28http://files.libertyfund.org/files/788/0084_LFeBk.pdf#page=491https://rconstitution.us/no-78-a-view-of-the-constitution-of-the-judicial-department-in-relation-to-the-tenure-of-good-behavior/0.2National judges opine (III.1, VI.3)
Conceived in Liberty: The Fourteenth Amendment and the Bill of RightsMichael CurtisNorth Carolina Law Review1987-06-011987-06-01https://scholarship.law.unc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&https:redir=1&article=3094&context=nclr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/conceived-in-liberty-the-fourteenth-amendment-and-the-bill-of-rights/0.5President intervenes on unconstitutional state-government actions (II.1.8)
Congresspeople intervene on unconstitutional state-government actions (VI.3)
Covert War and Congressional Authority: Hidden War and Forgotten PowerJules LobelUniversity of Pennsylvania Law Review1986-06-011986-06-01http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=4002&context=penn_law_reviewhttps://rconstitution.us/covert-war-and-congressional-authority-hidden-war-and-forgotten-power/3.5Marque and reprisal (I.8.11)
Judicial Review: Reckoning on Two Kinds of ErrorRichard EpsteinCato Journal1985-02-011985-02-01https://www.cato.org/sites/cato.org/files/serials/files/cato-journal/1985/1/cj4n3-4.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/judicial-review-reckoning-on-two-kinds-of-error/0.2Cases under Constitution, USA laws (III.2.1)
The judicial power of the USA (III.1)
Goal Statutes or Rules Statutes: The Case of the Clean Air ActDavid SchoenbrodUCLA Law Review1983-01-011983-01-01https://digitalcommons.nyls.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1237&context=fac_articles_chapters#page=2https://rconstitution.us/goal-statutes-or-rules-statutes-the-case-of-the-clean-air-act/3.4All legislative powers of the USA (I.1)
Exclusive Original Jurisdiction of the United States Supreme Court: Does it Still ExistJulie StevensonBrigham Young University Law Review1982-09-011982-09-01http://digitalcommons.law.byu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1335&context=lawreview#page=2https://rconstitution.us/exclusive-original-jurisdiction-of-the-united-states-supreme-court-does-it-still-exist/0.9Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
Congress and the Supreme Court’s JurisdictionCharles RiceVillanova Law Review1982-05-011982-05-01https://digitalcommons.law.villanova.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?referer=&https:redir=1&article=2374&context=vlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/congress-and-the-supreme-courts-jurisdiction/1.0Congresspeople make exceptions and regulations on Supreme Court (III.2.2)
Judicial power exceptions, regulations (III.2.2)
The Case for TreasonGeorge FletcherMaryland Law Review1982-05-011982-05-01http://digitalcommons.law.umaryland.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2522&context=mlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/the-case-for-treason/0.5Treason punishment (III.3.2)
Respective Roles of Senate and President in the Making and Abrogation of Treaties: The Original Intent of the Framers of the Constitution Historically ExaminedArthur BestorWashington Law Review1979-12-011979-12-01https://digitalcommons.law.uw.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=2271&context=wlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/respective-roles-of-senate-and-president-in-the-making-and-abrogation-of-treaties-the-original-intent-of-the-framers-of-the-constitution-historically-examined/5.0President blocks treaties (II.2.2)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
Treaty making (II.2.2)
Treaty advice, consent (II.2.2)
The Nature of a Pardon Under the United States ConstitutionSidney BuchananOhio State Law Journal1978-03-011978-03-01https://kb.osu.edu/bitstream/handle/1811/65042/OSLJ_V39N1_0036.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-nature-of-a-pardon-under-the-united-states-constitution/1.2Reprieve, pardon except on impeachment (II.2.1)
United States Standards of Weights and Measures, Their Creation and CreatorsArthur FrazierSmithsonian Studies in History and Technology1978-01-011978-01-01https://repository.si.edu/bitstream/handle/10088/2439/SSHT-0040_Hi_res.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=yhttps://rconstitution.us/united-states-standards-of-weights-and-measures-their-creation-and-creators/0.8Weights and measures standards (I.8.5)
Public Office as a Public Trust: A Suggestion that Impeachment for High Crimes and Misdemeanors Implies a Fiduciary Standard [HeinOnline paywall]Mabry Rogers, Stephen YoungGeorgetown Law Journal1975-05-011975-05-01https://heinonline.org/HOL/LandingPage?handle=hein.journals/glj63&div=64&id=&page=https://rconstitution.us/public-office-as-a-public-trust-a-suggestion-that-impeachment-for-high-crimes-and-misdemeanors-implies-a-fiduciary-standard-heinonline-paywall/1.0Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Impeachment (I.2.5)
Eagle and Sword: The Federalists and the Creation of the Military Establishment in America, 1783-1802, pp. 298-303 [Internet Archive reader/loan]Richard KohnThe Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries1975-01-011975-01-01https://archive.org/details/eagleswordfed00kohn/page/298https://rconstitution.us/eagle-and-sword-the-federalists-and-the-creation-of-the-military-establishment-in-america-1783-1802-pp-298-303-internet-archive-reader-loan/0.2Army raising and support up to 2 years (I.8.12)
Impeachment: A HandbookCharles Black, Jr.1974-01-011974-01-01https://archive.org/download/black_impeachment/black_impeachment.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/impeachment-a-handbook/1.6Representatives impeach (I.2.6)
Senators try impeachments (I.3.6, I.3.7)
Impeachment (I.2.5)
Impeachment trial (I.3.6)
War-Making under the Constitution: The Original UnderstandingCharles LofgrenThe Yale Law Journal1972-03-011972-03-01https://digitalcommons.law.yale.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=6109&context=ylj#page=2https://rconstitution.us/war-making-under-the-constitution-the-original-understanding/1.2War declaration (I.8.11)
The Congressional Power to Raise Armies: The Constitutional and Ratifying Conventions, 1787-1788 [JSTOR reader]Bernard Donahoe, Marshall SmelserThe Review of Politics1971-04-011971-04-01https://www.jstor.org/stable/1406250?item_view=read_online&refreqid=excelsior%3Aa5282595abe91faa4ec844d6bd571d93https://rconstitution.us/the-congressional-power-to-raise-armies-the-constitutional-and-ratifying-conventions-1787-1788-jstor-reader/0.3Army raising and support up to 2 years (I.8.12)
Constitutional Law: Poll TaxesWilliam DouglassTulsa Law Review1966-06-011966-06-01http://digitalcommons.law.utulsa.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1090&context=tlr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/constitutional-law-poll-taxes/0.2Voting-tax prohibition laws (24.2)
The Federal Basis for Weights and Measures: A Historical Review of Federal Legislative Effort, Statutes, and Administrative Action in the Field of Weights and Measures in the United StatesRalph Smith1958-06-051958-06-05https://ia801303.us.archive.org/31/items/federalbasisforw593smit/federalbasisforw593smit.pdfhttps://rconstitution.us/the-federal-basis-for-weights-and-measures-a-historical-review-of-federal-legislative-effort-statutes-and-administrative-action-in-the-field-of-weights-and-measures-in-the-united-states/1.2Weights and measures standards (I.8.5)
Presidential Use of Troops to Execute the Laws: A Brief HistoryDaniel PollittNorth Carolina Law Review1958-02-011958-02-01http://scholarship.law.unc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1986&context=nclr#page=2https://rconstitution.us/presidential-use-of-troops-to-execute-the-laws-a-brief-history/1.0Militia-calling provisions (I.8.15)
The Law of Nations as Part of the National Law of the United States, IIEdwin DickinsonUniversity of Pennsylvania Law Review1953-04-011953-04-01https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7946&context=penn_law_reviewhttps://rconstitution.us/the-law-of-nations-as-part-of-the-national-law-of-the-united-states-ii/1.6Controversies involving USA (III.2.1)
The Law of Nations as Part of the National Law of the United StatesEdwin DickinsonUniversity of Pennsylvania Law Review1952-10-011952-10-01https://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=7912&context=penn_law_reviewhttps://rconstitution.us/the-law-of-nations-as-part-of-the-national-law-of-the-united-states/1.1Controversies involving USA (III.2.1)
Jefferson and the Navy: A Defense [JSTOR reader]Julia MacleodHuntington Library Quarterly1945-02-011945-02-01https://www.jstor.org/stable/3815809?seq=1#page_scan_tab_contentshttps://rconstitution.us/jefferson-and-the-navy-a-defense-jstor-reader/1.0Navy provision and maintenance (I.8.13)
The Apportionment and Selection of Delegates. Politics, Parties, and Pressure Groups, pp. 402-14V. O. Key, Jr.1942-01-011942-01-01https://archive.org/download/in.ernet.dli.2015.14705/2015.14705.Politics-Parties-And-Pressure-Groups.pdf#page=419https://rconstitution.us/the-apportionment-and-selection-of-delegates-politics-parties-and-pressure-groups-pp-402-14/0.5Electoral college (52)
Suits by States Within the Original Jurisdiction of the Supreme CourtFerrel Heady, Jr.Washington University Law Review1940-11-011940-11-01http://openscholarship.wustl.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=3991&context=law_lawreview#page=2https://rconstitution.us/suits-by-states-within-the-original-jurisdiction-of-the-supreme-court/0.8Controversies between states, nations, their people (III.2.1)
ACU State Legislative RatingsConservative.org0000-00-000000-00-00http://acuratings.conservative.org/acu-state-legislative-ratings/https://rconstitution.us/acu-state-legislative-ratings/0.0Voting scores (48)
Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States, vol. I, 1873, pp. 265-6 footnote 2Joseph Story0000-00-000000-00-00https://archive.org/details/commentariesonco01storuoft/page/265https://rconstitution.us/commentaries-on-the-constitution-of-the-united-states-vol-i-1873-pp-265-6-footnote-2/0.0President disregards unconstitutional statutes and opinions (II.1.8)
Interactive ConstitutionNational Constitution Center0000-00-000000-00-00https://constitutioncenter.org/interactive-constitutionhttps://rconstitution.us/interactive-constitution/0.0Offsetting powers
Scope
Processes
Liberty ScoreConservative Review0000-00-000000-00-00https://libertyscore.conservativereview.com/scorecard/https://rconstitution.us/liberty-score/0.0Voting scores (48)
tleauthorssource0000-00-000000-00-00art_linkcom_link0.0bound
  1. Anthony, James. “Latest.” rConstitution.us, rConstitution.us/latest.  link
  2. Anthony, James. rConstitution Papers: Offsetting Powers Secure Our Rights. Neuwoehner Press, 2020, pp. 3.1-15.  preview
  3. Anthony, James. The Constitution Needs a Good Party: Good Government Comes from Good Boundaries. Neuwoehner Press, 2018, pp. 41-60.  preview